HC3152 Ebusiness Selling on the Web代写

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  • HC3152 Ebusiness Selling on the Web代写
    Selling on the Web: Revenue Models and Building a Web Presence
    HC3152 Ebusiness Applications Week 2
    Learning Objectives
    In this chapter, you will learn about:
    Revenue models
    How some companies move from one revenue model to another to achieve success
    Revenue strategy issues that companies face when selling on the Web
    Creating an effective business presence on the Web
    Web site usability
    Communicating effectively with customers on the Web
    Holmes 2011
    Revenue Models
    Web business revenue-generating models
    Web catalog
    Digital content
    Advertising-subscription mixed
    Can work for both sale types
    Business-to-consumer (B2C)
    Business-to-business (B2B)
    •Can use same revenue model for both types of sales
    Holmes 2011
    Web Catalog Revenue Models
    Adapted from mail-order (catalog) model
    Seller establishes brand image
    Printed information mailed to prospective buyers
    •Orders placed by mail or toll-free telephone number
    Expands traditional model
    Replaces or supplements print catalogs
    Offers flexibility
    •Orders placed through Web site or telephone
    •Payments made though Web site, telephone, or mail
    Creates additional sales outlet for existing companies
    Holmes 2011
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
     Computers and consumer electronics
     Leading computer manufacturers
    • Sell a full range of products on the Web
    Dell allows product configuration flexibility
    • Creates value
    • Expanded successful mail-order catalog
    operations to include Web sites
     Best Buy, J&R Music World, Radio Shack
    • Web sites sell same products as in stores
    Holmes 2011 5
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
     Computers and consumer electronics (cont’d.)
    Marketing channel
    • Pathway to customers
     Advantage of having several marketing channels
    • Reach more customers at less cost
    Can combine marketing channels
    • Example: in-store online ordering
    • Example: mail catalogs with reference to retailer’s
    Web site
    Holmes 2011 6
    FIGURE 3-1 Combining marketing channels: Two retailer examples
    Holmes 2011 7
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
     Books, music, and videos
    Most visible electronic commerce examples
     Amazon.com Web-only retailer originally sold books
    • Evolved into general retailer
     Barnes & Noble, Blackwell’s, Books-A-Million,
    Powell’s Books
    • All adopted Web catalog revenue model
    CDnow Web-only online music store
    • CD Universe copied CDnow approach
     Tower Records, Sam Goody retail stores
    • Created Web sites to compete with CDnow
    Holmes 2011 8
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Luxury goods
    Difficult to sell online
    •Customers want to see product in person or touch
    Vera Wang and Versace
    •Web sites provide information
    •Shopper purchases at physical store
    •Heavy use of graphics and animation
    Evian Web site
    •Presents information in a visually stunning way
    Holmes 2011
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Clothing retailers
    Many adapted catalog sales model to Web
    Display clothing photos categorised by type
    •Prices, sizes, colors, tailoring details
    Want customers to examine clothing online
    •Place orders through Web site
    Lands’ End online Web shopping assistance
    •Lands’ End Live (1999)
    •Online text chat and call-back feature
    •Ability to push Web pages to customer’s browser
    Holmes 2011
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Clothing retailers (cont’d.)
    Lands’ End personal shopper agent (more recent)
    •Learns preferences and makes suggestions
    My Virtual Model (customers try clothes)
    •Graphic image built from customer measurements
    Another feature allows:
    •Two shoppers using different computers to simultaneously browse Web site together
    •Only one of the shoppers can purchase items
    •Either shopper can select items to view
    •Selected items appear in both Web browsers
    Holmes 2011
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Clothing retailers (cont’d.)
    Online overstocks stores
    •Reach more people than physical outlet stores
    Problem: varying computer monitor color settings
    •Solution: send fabric swatch on request
    •Solution: offer generous return policies
    Holmes 2011
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Flowers and gifts (gift retailers)
    •Online extension to successful telephone business
    •Competes with online-only florists
    Godiva offers business gift plans
    Hickory Farms and Mrs. Fields Cookies
    •Offer familiar name brands on the Web
    Harry and David
    •Original Web site for informational purposes
    •Promoted catalog business and added online ordering feature
    Holmes 2011
    Web Catalog Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    General discounters
    Buy.com and Overstock.com
    •Borrowed Wal-Mart and discount club sales model
    •Sell merchandise at extremely low prices
    Traditional discount retailers (Costco, Kmart, Target, Wal-Mart)
    •Slow to implement online sales on their Web sites
    •Had huge investments in physical stores
    •Did not understand online retailing world
    •Now use the Web catalog revenue model in their successful online sales operations
    Holmes 2011
    Digital Content Subscription Revenue Models
    Firms owning written information or information rights
    Embrace the Web as a highly efficient distribution mechanism
    Use the digital content revenue model
    •Sell subscriptions for access to information they own
    Legal content
    LexisNexis: offers variety of information services
    Lexis.com: offers original legal information product
    Holmes 2011
    Digital Content Subscription Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Academic research content
    ProQuest: digital copies of academic publications
    Business content
    Dow Jones newspaper publisher subscriptions
    •Sold digitised newspaper, magasine, and journal content subscriptions
    •Factiva: online content management and integration service
    Technical content
    Association for Computer Machinery (ACM): digital library
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Supported Revenue Models
     Used by United States broadcast network television
     Provides free programming and advertising messages
    • Supports network operations sufficiently
     Problem: measuring and charging site visitor views
     Stickiness
    • Keeping visitors at site and attracting repeat visitors
    • Exposed to more advertising in a sticky site
     Problem: obtaining large advertiser interest
     Requires demographic information collection
    • Characteristics set used to group visitors
    Holmes 2011 17
    Advertising-Supported Revenue Models
     Can obtain large advertiser interest by:
    Using a specialised information Web site
    • Draw a specialised audience certain advertisers
    want to reach
     Examples:HC3152 Ebusiness Selling on the Web代写
    • The Huffington Post and the Drudge Report
    • HowStuffWorks
    Holmes 2011 18
    FIGURE 3-2 Three strategies for an advertising-supported revenue model
    Holmes 2011 19
    Advertising-Supported Revenue Models
     Web portals (portal)
     Site used as a launching point to enter the Web
    • Almost always includes a Web directory or search
    • Often includes other features
    Web directories
    • Listing of hyperlinks to Web pages
     Yahoo!: one of the first
    • Presents search term triggered advertising on
    each page
    Holmes 2011 20
    Advertising-Supported Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Web portals (cont’d.)
    Portal sites using general interest strategy
    •AOL, Excite, Google, Bing
    Portal sites not using general interest strategy
    •Help visitors find information within a specific knowledge domain
    •Advertisers pay more
    •Example: C-NET
    Travel sites
    •Successful as advertising-supported online businesses
    •Example: Kayak
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Supported Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Newspaper and magazine publishers
    Sell advertising to cover Web site costs
    Internet Public Library Online Newspapers page
    •Provides links to worldwide newspaper sites
    Local shopping news, alternative press newspapers
    •Easier transition to advertising-supported Web revenue model
    Newspaper’s Web presence
    •Provides greater exposure and advertising audience
    •Diverts sales from the print edition (difficult to measure)
    •Operating costs not covered by advertising revenue
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Supported Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Targeted classified advertising sites
    Can command higher rates than general advertising
    Original version
    •Newspaper classified advertising
    Growth of classified advertising Web sites
    •Very bad for newspapers
    •Example: craigslist
    Web employment advertising
    •Most successful targeted classified advertising category
    •Examples: CareerBuilder.com, The Ladders and Guru.com, Monster.com
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Supported Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Targeted classified advertising sites (cont’d.)
    Used vehicle sites
    •AutoTrader.com, CycleTrader.com, BoatTrader.com
    •Accept paid advertising to sell cars, motorcycles, boats
    Product sites with dedicated following (VetteFinders)
    •Successful by catering to small audiences
    Potential classified advertising sites
    •Any site selling products useful to buyer after initial use
    •Musicians Buy-Line, ComicLink.com, The Golf Classifieds
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Subscription Mixed Revenue Models
    Subscribers pay fee and accept advertising
    Typically less advertising compared to advertising-supported sites
    Web sites offer different degrees of success
    The New York Times (today)
    •Bulk of revenue derived from advertising
    The Wall Street Journal (mixed model)
    •Subscription revenue weighted more heavily
    Holmes 2011
    FIGURE 3-3 Revenue models used by online editions of newspapers and magazines
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Subscription Mixed Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Leverages brand name from cable television business
    Sells advertising, offers free information
    Mixed model includes advertising and subscription revenue (collects Insider subscriber revenue)
    Consumers Union (ConsumerReports.org)
    Purely a subscription-supported site
    Not-for-profit organisation with no advertising
    Free information
    •Attracts subscribers and fulfills mission
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models
    Service fee charged
    Based on transaction number or size
    Web site offers visitor transaction information
    Personal service formerly provided by a human agent
    Value chain
    •Intermediary (human agent) removed
    •New intermediary (fee-for-transaction Web site) introduced
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
     Travel
     Travel agency revenue model: receive fee for
    facilitating a transaction
    • Travel agent adds information consolidation and
    filtering value
    Computers also good at information consolidation and
    • Travel agents have long used networked
    computers: Sabre Travel Network
     Internet provided a new way to do business online
    Holmes 2011 29
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
     Travel (cont’d.)
    Web-based travel agencies were new entrants
    • Examples: Travelocity, Expedia, Hotels.com, Hotel
    Discount Reservations, Orbitz
    • Generate advertising revenue from ads placed on
    travel information pages
     Traditional travel agents: squeezed out
    • Surviving agencies charge a flat fee
     Smaller travel agents specialise (cruises, hotels)
    • May use a reintermediation strategy
    Holmes 2011 30
    Holmes 2011 31
    FIGURE 3-4 Orbitz home page
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
     Automobile sales
    Web sites implement the fee-for-transaction revenue
    model differently
    CarsDirect.com model
    • Customers select specific car, site determines
    price and finds local dealer
     Autoweb.com and Autobytel model
    • Locate local dealers, car sells at small premium
    over dealer’s nominal cost
    Car salesperson: disintermediated
    Web site: new intermediary (reintermediation)
    Holmes 2011 32
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Original full-line brokers charged relatively high commissions
    •Provided advice
    1970s: deregulation resulted in discount brokers
    •Web-based brokerage firms: E*TRADE and Datek
    •Web allowed investment advice, fast trade execution online
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Stockbrokers (cont’d.)
    1990s: discount brokers faced competition from online firms
    •Discount brokers and full-line brokers opened new stock trading and information Web sites
    Online brokers offer transaction cost reductions
    Traditional stockbrokers: disintermediated
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Insurance brokers
    Quotesmith offered Internet policy price quotes directly to public (1996)
    •Independent insurance agents: disintermediated
    Insurance policy information, comparisons, sales sites
    •InsWeb, Answer Financial, Insurance.com
    Progressive Web site
    •Provides quotes for competitors’ products too
    The General (General Automobile Insurance Services) Web site
    •Offers comfortable, anonymous experience
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Event tickets
    Web allows event promoters to sell tickets from one virtual location to customers worldwide
    Online agencies earn a fee on every ticket sold
    •Ticketmaster, Tickets.com, TicketWeb
    Web created secondary ticket market (StubHub, TicketsNow)
    •Brokers connecting ticket owners with buyers
    •Earn fees on tickets resold for others, buy ticket blocks
    Web created easy-to-find central marketplace, facilitating buyer-seller negotiations
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Real estate and mortgage loans
    Web sites provide all traditional broker services
    •Coldwell Banker, Prudential
    National Association of Realtors Web site
    2008 financial crisis
    •Dramatically reduced number of mortgage brokers in business
    Successful online mortgage brokers
    •Ditech and E-LOAN
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Online banking and financial services
    No physical product
    •Easy to offer on Web
    Web financial transactions concerns
    •Trust and reliability of financial institution
    •Use existing bank’s identification and reputation
    •Start online bank not affiliated with existing bank (First Internet Bank of Indiana)
    •Use different name (Bank One used Wingspan)
    –Approach was not successful
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Online banking and financial services (cont’d.)
    Additional barriers preventing a more rapid rate of growth
    •Lack of bill presentment features
    •Lack of account aggregation tools
    By 2012:
    •Industry analysts expect most banks (online and traditional) will offer aggregation services
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Online music
    Recording industry: slow to embrace online distribution
    •Feared digital copying
    Large online music stores
    •Revenue from fee-for-transaction model
    •Some sites offer subscription plans
    Complicating issues
    •Stores offer limited number of digital music files
    •Stores promote their own music file format
    •Artists and recording companies invoke limits
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Online music (cont’d.)
    Complicating issues (cont’d.)
    •Buyers required to download and install Digital Rights Management (DRM) software
    •Varying restrictions confusing to consumers
    Online music market industry failed to embrace the network effect gained by adopting one standard file format
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Online music (cont’d.)
    Some stores sold audio in a generally compatible file format with no copying restrictions
    •Mondomix MP3 and Smithsonian Folkways
    •Music not produced by major recording companies
    •Adopt one standard file format, no copying restrictions, DRM-free MP3 format (Amazon in 2007)
    By 2012: 80 percent of all music will be sold online
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Online video
    Issues hampering prior sales
    •Large file size
    •Fear of online sales impairing other sales types
    •Inability to play on variety of devices
    Overcoming the issues
    •New technologies improving delivery
    •Companies incorporating online distribution into revenue strategy
    •Delivery allowed on multiple devices
    –Through standard Web browser
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Transaction Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Electronic books
    Forms of digital audio books
    •CDs (originally) and various types of digital files
    Audible sells subscriptions
    Allows monthly download of a certain number of books
    •Pricing is per book
    Offers books, newspapers, magazines, other digital format items
    •Delivered directly to its line of Kindle readers
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Service Revenue Models
    Companies offer Web service
    Fee based on service value
    •Not a broker service
    •Not based on transactions-processed number or size
    Online games
    Sales revenue source
    •Advertising (older concept), pay-to-play for premium games, subscription fees
    Average game player is 35 years old, playing computer or video games for 12 years
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Service Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Professional services
    Limited Web use
    •State laws prohibit extension of practice
    •Patients may set appointments, receive online consultation
    Major concern
    •Patient privacy
    Law on the Web site
    •Legal consultations to United Kingdom residents
    •Online version of Martindale-Hubbell lawyer directory
    Holmes 2011
    Fee-for-Service Revenue Models (cont’d.)
    Professional services (cont’d.)
    CPA Directory
    •United States accounting professionals site
    General health information
    •RealAge, Dr. Andrew Weil’s Self Healing, WebMD
    Significant barrier
    •Patient diagnosis difficult without physical examination
    Some physicians beginning to offer online consultations
    •For ongoing, established relationship patients
    Holmes 2011
    Free for Many, Fee for a Few
    Economics of manufacturing
    Different for physical and digital products
    Unit cost high percentage of physical products
    Unit cost very small for digital products
    Leads to a different revenue model
    Offer basic product to many for free
    Charge a fee to some for differentiated products
    •Examples: Yahoo e-mail accounts, bakery: free cookies
    Holmes 2011
    Revenue Models in Transition
    Companies must change revenue model
    To meet needs of new and changing Web users
    Some companies created e-commerce Web sites
    Needed many years to grow large enough to become profitable (CNN and ESPN)
    Some companies changed model or went out of business
    Due to lengthy unprofitable growth phases
    Holmes 2011
    Subscription to Advertising-Supported Model
    Slate magazine
    Upscale news and current events
    Success expectations were high
    Experienced writers and editors
    Acclaim for incisive reporting and excellent writing
    Initial revenue source
    Annual subscription did not cover operating costs
    Now an advertising-supported site
    Part of the Bing portal
    •Value to Microsoft: increase the portal’s stickiness
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Supported to Advertising-Subscription Mixed Model
    Acclaimed for innovative content
    Initial revenue source
    Advertising-supported site
    Needed additional money to continue operations
    Now offers optional subscription version
    Annual fee for Salon premium
    •Free of advertising
    •Additional content
    •Downloadable content
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Supported to Fee-for-Services Model
    Xdrive Technologies: offered free disk storage
    Initial revenue source (1999): advertising-supported
    Targeted e-mail advertising
    Did not cover operating costs
    2005: bought by AOL
    Switched to a subscription-supported model
    Xdrive frequently adjusted its monthly fee downward
    AOL closed the service in 2009
    Successful companies: fee based on storage amount used
    Holmes 2011
    Advertising-Supported to Subscription Model
    Northern Light search engine includes own database
    Results include Web site links and abstracts of its owned content
    Initial revenue source
    •Combination of the advertising-supported model plus a fee-based information access service
    •Advertising revenue: insufficient to cover service
    Converted to a new subscription-supported revenue model
    •Mainly large corporate clients
    •Individual monthly billing option for articles accessed
    Holmes 2011
    Multiple Transitions
    Encyclopedia Britannica
    Initial Web offerings (1994)
    •Britannica Internet Guide
    •Encyclopedia Britannica Online
    Initial revenue source
    •Paid subscription site had low subscription sales
    Converted to free advertiser-supported site (1999)
    •Advertising revenues declined
    2001: returned to mixed model with subscription plan and free content
    Value added: sells reputation and the expertise
    Holmes 2011
    Revenue Strategy Issues
    Web revenue models implementation issues
    Dealing with the issues
    Holmes 2011
    Channel Conflict and Cannibalization
    Channel conflict (cannibalization)
    Company Web site sales activities interfere with existing sales outlets
    Levis Web site and Maytag
    •Web sites no longer sell products
    •Sites now provide product, retail distributor information
    Eddie Bauer
    •Online purchases returnable at retail stores
    •Required compensation and bonus plans adjustments to support Web site
    •Channel Cooperation made it successful
    Holmes 2011
    Strategic Alliances
    Strategic alliance
    Two or more companies join forces
    •Undertake activity over long time period
    Yodlee account aggregation services provider
    Yodlee concentrates on developing the technology and services
    Banks provide the customers
    Joined with Target, CDnow, ToysRUs
    •ToysRUs and Amazon suing each other
    Holmes 2011
    Creating an Effective Web Presence
    Organisation’s presence
    Public image conveyed to stakeholders
    Usually not important
    •Until growth reaches significant size
    •Customers, suppliers, employees, stockholders, neighbors, general public
    Effective Web presence
    Critical even for smallest and newest Web operating firms
    Holmes 2011
    Identifying Web Presence Goals
    Business physical space
    Focus: very specific objectives
    •Not image driven
    •Must satisfy many business needs
    •Often fails to convey a good presence
    Web business site
    Intentionally creates distinctive presences
    Good Web site design provides:
    •Effective image-creation features
    •Effective image-enhancing features
    Holmes 2011
    Identifying Web Presence Goals (cont’d.)
    Web business site objectives:
    Attracting Web site visitors
    Keeping visitors to stay and explore
    Convincing visitors to follow site’s links to obtain information
    Creating an impression consistent with the organisation’s desired image
    Building a trusting relationship with visitors
    Reinforcing positive images about the organisation
    Encouraging visitors to return to the site
    Holmes 2011
    Identifying Web Presence Goals (cont’d.)
    Making Web presence consistent with brand image
    Different firms establish different Web presence goals
    Coca Cola Web site pages
    •Usually include trusted corporate image (Coke bottle)
    •Image: traditional position as a trusted classic
    Pepsi Web site pages
    •Usually filled with hyperlinks to activities and product-related promotions
    •Image: upstart product favored by younger generation
    Holmes 2011
    Identifying Web Presence Goals (cont’d.)
    Matching site design to function
    Volkswagen of America site
    •Accomplishes important functions for the company
    •Provides links to detailed Volkswagen model information, links to a dealer locator page, links to information about the company, a link to a set of shopping tools
    Volkswagen’s home page
    •Meets the needs of most visitors quickly and effectively
    Volkswagen site enhances company image by providing useful information to customers online
    Holmes 2011
    Holmes 2011
    FIGURE 3-5 Volkswagen of America home page
    Identifying Web Presence Goals (cont’d.)
    Not-for-profit organisations
    Web presence effort key goals:
    •Image enhancement and information dissemination
    Successful site key elements
    •Integrate information dissemination with fund-raising
    •Provide two-way contact channel
    American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
    •Serves many different constituencies
    Web sites used to stay in touch with existing stakeholders, identify new opportunities for serving them
    Holmes 2011
    Holmes 2011 65
    FIGURE 3-6 ACLU home page
    Web Site Usability
     Current Web presences
     Few businesses accomplish all goals
    Most fail to provide visitors sufficient interactive
    contact opportunities
     Improving Web presence
    • Make site accessible to more people
    • Make site easier to use
    • Make site encourage visitors’ trust
    • Make site develop feelings of loyalty toward the
    Holmes 2011 66
    How the Web Is Different
     Simple mid-1990s Web sites
    Conveyed basic business information
    No market research conducted
     Web objectives achievement
     Failed due to no understanding for Web presencebuilding
     Web sites designed to create an organisation’s
    Contain links to standard information set
     Success dependent on how this information offered
    Holmes 2011 67
    Meeting the Needs of Web Site Visitors
     Successful Web businesses:
    Realise every visitor is a potential customer (partner)
     Web presence is an important concern
     Know visitor characteristic variations
    • Understand that the visitor is at the site for a
     Varied motivations of Web site visitors
    Why visitors arrive at Web sites
    • Learning about company products or services
    • Buying products or services
    • Obtaining warranty, service, repair policy
    Holmes 2011 68
    Meeting the Needs of Web Site Visitors (cont’d.)
     Varied motivations of Web site visitors (cont’d.)
     Why visitors arrive at Web sites (cont’d.)
    • Obtaining general company information
    • Obtaining financial information
    • Identifying people
    • Obtaining contact information
    • Following a link into the site while searching for
    information about a related product, service, or
    Challenge to meet all motivations
    • Visitors arrive with different needs, experience,
    and expectation levels
    Holmes 2011 69
    Meeting the Needs of Web Site Visitors (cont’d.)
     Making Web sites accessible
     Build interface flexibility options:
    • Frame use
    • Text-only version
    • Selection of smaller graphic images
    • Specification of streaming media connection type
    • Choice among information attributes
    Controversial Web site design issues
    • Adobe Flash software use
    – Some tasks lend themselves to animated Web pages
    Holmes 2011 70
    Holmes 2011 71
    FIGURE 3-7 Lee® Jeans FitFinder Flash animation
    Meeting the Needs of Web Site Visitors (cont’d.)
     Making Web sites accessible (cont’d.)
    Offer multiple information formats
    Consider goals in Web site construction
    Holmes 2011 72
    FIGURE 3-8 Goals for business Web sites
    Trust and Loyalty
    Creates relationship value
    Good service leads to seller trust
    Delivery, order handling, help selecting product, after-sale support
    Satisfactory service builds customer loyalty
    Customer service in electronic commerce sites
    •Lack integration between call centers and Web sites
    •Poor e-mail responsiveness
    Holmes 2011
    Rating Electronic Commerce Web Sites
    Companies routinely review electronic commerce Web sites for:
    Usability, customer service, other factors
    Sell the gathered information directly to the companies operating the Web sites
    •Include suggestions for improvements
    BizRate.com posts ratings
    Provides comparison shopping service
    Compiles ratings by conducting surveys of sites’ customers
    Holmes 2011
    Usability Testing
    Helps meet Web site goals
    Avoids Web site frustration
    •Customers leave site without buying anything
    Simple site usability changes
    •Include telephone contact information
    •Staff a call center
    Learn about visitor needs by conducting focus groups
    Usability testing cost
    •Low compared to Web site design costs
    Holmes 2011
    Customer-Centric Web Site Design
    Important part of successful electronic business operation
    Focus on meeting all site visitors’ needs
    Customer-centric approach
    Putting customer at center of all site designs
    •Follow guidelines and recommendations
    •Make visitors’ Web experiences more efficient, effective, memorable
    Webby Awards site
    Examples of good Web site design
    Holmes 2011
    Connecting with Customers
     Important element of a corporate Web presence
     Identify and reach out to customers
    Holmes 2011 77
    The Nature of Communication on the Web
     Communication modes
     Personal contact (prospecting) model
    • Employees individually search for, qualify, contact
    potential customers
    Mass media
    • Deliver messages by broadcasting
    Addressable media
    • Advertising efforts directed to known addressee
     Internet medium
     Occupies central space in medium choice continuum
    Holmes 2011 78
    Holmes 2011 79
    FIGURE 3-9 Business communication modes
    HC3152 Ebusiness Selling on the Web代写